Por que exite o horário de verão ?

O horário de verão é adotado nesta estação pelo fato de os dias serem mais longos, devido à posição da Terra em relação ao Sol. Isso faz com que as luzes sejam acendidas mais tarde, e faz dessa medida uma forma eficiente de se economizar energia.

O horário de verão só se aplica nas regiões mais afastadas da Linha do Equador. Já para as regiões mais próximas desse ponto, os dias e as noites têm a mesma duração durante todo o ano, fazendo com que essa prática alcance resultados menores ou até mesmo não alcance vantagens em economia.  No entanto, ainda existe o benefício de se deslocar o alto consumo dos horários de pico (de 18h às 21h) para outros períodos do dia.

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A prática recebeu tanto advocacia quanto críticas. Adiantar os relógios traz benefícios para o varejo, os esportes, e outras atividades que exploram a luz do sol após a jornada de trabalho, mas pode trazer problemas para o entretenimento da tarde e para outras atividades ligadas diretamente à luz solar, como a agricultura. Mesmo que alguns dos primeiros proponentes do ato tenham pensado que o mesmo reduziria o uso de lâmpadas incandescentes durante a tarde, sendo a iluminação anteriormente o principal motivo da eletricidade, o clima moderno e os padrões de uso de aparelhos para refrigeração diferem bastante, e pesquisas em relação a como o horário de verão atualmente afetam o uso de energia têm sido limitadas e contraditórias.

Internacionalmente os estudos apontam três benefícios do horário de verão: economias de energia, redução de acidentes nos horários de pico do trânsito (que durante esse período possuem mais iluminação natural) e redução de assaltos e crimes. No caso brasileiro podemos acrescentar um importante benefício que se refere à possibilidade de armazenarmos mais água nos reservatórios de nossas hidrelétricas durante o verão e podermos utilizá-la depois durante os meses secos do inverno.

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Marco A Martinho

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